 ## ERGO-MTM MODEL: an integrated approach to set working times based upon standardized working performance and controlled biomechanical load, Caragnano G. e Lavatelli I. (2012)

Work measurement is definitively a difficult task, since we miss a clear and objective reference as for distances and weights, where we have the meter and the kilogram. To set a standard time of a given manual task the following steps are necessary:

– Set a basic time

– Determine the proper time allowances

– Add allowances to the basic time to set a standard time

A basic time is the time necessary to an average person, well instructed, moving at an average speed and paying an average effort to accomplish a task, under the hypothesis to work for an entire shift (ap-prox. 8 hours). These conditions (skills, speed and effort) merge into a factor named working performance. When setting a basic time of a task with a time study, the analyst has to level the observed time using the normal performance as a reference (if the rated performance is higher than the normal performance, then the basic time would be longer than the observed time). For example, to calculate the basic time to walk 1 km, it’s necessary to observe a person walking 1 km, rate the performance and take his/her actual time to execute the task. Imagine that the stop-watch time is 800 s and that the rated performance is 110% (10% above the one of an average person walking without getting short of breath). The standard time to walk 1 km then would be 800 s x 1.1 = 880 s. If a person takes 880 s to walk 1 km, his/her performance would be exactly 100%.

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